Every construction whether residential,commercial or industrial, are constructed with lots of planning, hard work, money, and time investment. Every construction / structure deteriorates with time. The reasons may be due to weather, natural calamity, pollution or corrosion. To increase any structure’s shelf life, it requires periodic repairs and maintenance. Repair generally means to fix defects including renewing the parts which are damaged.
The job of repair / maintenance / replacement in any building can be painting, flooring, plumbing, conditioning gutters, mending leaks, repairing electrical parts/ machinery, repairing or replacing broken parts of a fence or broken glass in windows.
Small repairs do not require a skilled person or professional, but major repairs and maintenance require professionals such as Structural Engineer, Civil Engineer, Electrical Engineer, Contractors, Architect/Interior Designer depending upon the magnitude and nature of work.
Different techniques are used to accomplish the proposed repair. Some are listed below:
1) Structural Repair: Concrete mortar repair.
Such kind of repair is done under the guidance of Structural Engineer.He/ she offers best solutions to all types of structural repairs from indoor to outdoor constructions, like flooring, waterproofing,an external coating of paints or plasters or leakages as per the needs of residential, commercial, industrial building or any infrastructural facilities.
Various techniques are like:
Spray Polymer– Cement based polymer mortar mixed with water and is pressure sprayed on the structure to be repaired. This is used in Reinstating of columns, cement, silos and chimneys, retaining walls, waterfront structures, dams, irrigation canals,tunnel linings,etc.
Glass Fiber Wrapping Carbon Fiber Wrapping Source:gubbi.co.in
Fiber Wrapping– Carbon and Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP), also called composite materials, are popularly used in structural strengthening for steel, wood, concrete, seaport and aerospace applications because of their cost-effectiveness and superior performance in high strength, light weight,corrosion resistance, bomb blast and earthquake protections.FRP wraps are easy to apply and can be used on any size or shape of a structural member .
Column Concrete Jacketing Source: gubbi.co.in
Column and Beam Concrete Jacketing– Micro concrete is a ready to use, self-flowable mixture generally made under strict quality control in automated factories.Attains high early and ultimate strength.It’s gaseous expansion qualities compensates for shrinkage and settlement in the plastic stage.
Polymer Modified Mortar– Where concrete structures have deteriorated due to corrosion and where changes in use and/or design code do not demand an increase in loading capacity, Efficient repairing of concrete structures can be done by application of Polymer Modified Mortar.
Epoxy Mortar– A three-component, water-washable 100% solids epoxy mortar system for installations where exceptional high-strength and chemical and impact resistance is required. 100% solids epoxy systems unique formula produces a mortar with greater bond and compressive strengths and improved chemical resistance over conventional cement or emulsion-based setting systems. Use for epoxy mortar patching and overlays on interior, horizontal substrates.
2)Waterproofing: Any type of water leakage can be prevented by Waterproofing the surface.Various techniques used in this area are:
Membrane Waterproofing– It is the combination of materials used to prevent water intrusion into the structural elements of a building or its finished spaces. Its main purpose is to resist hydrostatic pressure exerted by moisture in the liquid state. Waterproofing membranes consist of waterproof plastic, rubber, or coated fabric materials. The materials are used in a system to prevent the ingress of water into foundations, roofs, walls, basements, buildings, and structures when properly installed. Depending on the structure and need, the waterproofing membrane can either be applied to the interior (negative), such as the case with repairs, the exterior (positive). there are various types of membrane waterproofing as shown in the pictures below:
PVC Membrane Waterproofing APP Membrane Waterproofing
TPO Membrane Coating Poly Urethane Coating
Liquid Applied Membrane EPDM Membrane Waterproofing Source: gubbi.co.in
These Waterproofing materials are easy to apply, excellent weather-ability, excellent Waterproofing strength, impermeable to water, durable, economic in use.
Polymer /PU Coating with Screed Course Waterproofing -This is a chemical waterproofing method, wherein 2 coats of a chemical are applied with /without a sandwich layer of geotextile cloth and this membrane is protected by a polymer, cement sand mortar screed.
Brick bat coba waterproofing with Stamped Finish – Brick bat waterproofing is a traditional waterproofing method for newly constructed structures, utilizing all broken bricks of brickwork walls. Its advantages are, good waterproofing properties, a slope can be easily maintained, good aesthetic look, no extra cost of Tiling / stone flooring, shrinkage cracks can be reduced due to impregnation of depressions in top finishing layer.
Lightweight Waterproofing– A seamless topping Of lightweight foamed concrete sandwiched between 2 layers of Polymer / PU coating. Its advantages are quick and easy to install, super flat surface profile, suitable for air castor movement, solvent free, a non-shrinking, scratch resistant, etc.
3) Flooring: When any type of floor / tiles comes out or get damaged due to any load on it, then repair of floors is done. The various techniques used are as follows:
Tremix Flooring – Due to less water-cement ratio, it maintains a high abrasion resistance. With the help of a surface vibrator, an even & uniform leveled surface is created; thereby saving the cost of extra floor finish. Most suitable for factory floors, industrial roads etc.
Polyurethane Flooring – A seamless floor,100% solid, self-leveled, smooth finished having excellent appearance, having high resistance to any type of chemical, most suitable for the floors that require a high level of cleanliness. It is Quick and easy installation, super flat surface profile, suitable for air castor movement, solvent free, non-shrinking, scratch resistant, etc.
Industrial Concrete Flooring – Concrete floors are less prone to defects like rutting, cracking, loss of texture and potholes. They have a long life and low maintenance cost requires less expenditure on street lighting (due to surface reflection). A concrete road has high fuel saving, high traffic speed, etc.
Epoxy Flooring – Epoxies are highly adhesive and have high chemical properties in addition to resistance to heat, moisture alkalis, salts, solvents and mild acids, high abrasion resistance. The flooring can be made seamless, dust free, hygiene and non flip surface and are available in the variety of colors. High early strength and thus the floor can be used quickly. Most suitable for pharmaceutical / automobile/ food/ mechanical industries and hospitals.
Stamped Concrete – It is concrete with a stamp of required design. An ideal choice for all the surfacing needs with an incredible look and surface finish; a 3 to 10 mm deep stamped floor with multi-color, versatile design with no visible joints, with high abrasion resistance and long durable floor; Most suitable for parking, driveway, patio, a pool side, Garden Walkways etc.
Pavers – Pavers are alternate to the Concrete roads and are precast. Interlocking blocks are available in different shapes, size, color & texture; that can be laid on a well-compacted surface within the shortest time; thereby saving a curing time of the concrete surface. Easy to maintain and can be designed for various load bearing.
4)Grouting: Grout is a particularly fluid form of concrete used to fill gaps. It is used in construction to embed rebars in masonry walls, connect sections of precast concrete, fill voids, and seal joints such as those between tiles. Grout is generally a mixture of water, cement, sand, often color tint, and sometimes fine gravel (if it is being used to fill large spaces such as the cores of concrete blocks). Unlike other structural pastes such as plaster or joint compound, correctly mixed and applied grout forms a waterproof seal.
Polyurethane Grouting- It is made of PU mixed with accelerators grouted at high pressure in the concrete structures. It is effective in cutting off gushing water of high pressure and velocity. When used with uniform plastic packers, the grout materials react with water/moisture and expand to form a tough, closed rubber that remains unaffected by corrosive environment. This is most effective for water retaining structures.
Epoxy Injection – Epoxy injection consists of a base component containing solvent free epoxy resin plus a low viscosity liquid hardener. Epoxy injection grout may be placed by free flow under gravity or may be injected using a suitable hand or mechanical pump. Grouting of gap dimensions 0.1 mm to 10 mm may be easily achieved. The systems give rapid strength gain obtaining mechanical properties, several times those of high-quality concrete. The hardened grout is resistant to most chemicals, stable to sea water, petroleum product and resists freeze- thaw cycle.
Micro fine cement Grouting – Micro cement is four times finer than the normal cement and has the ability to penetrate more into the finer pores and finer cracks. M.C grouting is done with admixtures such as expander and vulcanizing agents. The grout is non-toxic, odorless, pollution free, shrinkage free; thus can be used under any situation.Suitable for crack grouting of dam foundation, pouring underground waterproof curtain, foundation settlements in highway, bridges, airport runway. Micro fine grout can be used for increasing the load bearing capacity of the subsoil.
Cement grouting – Normal cement grouting is done for increasing the strength, impermeability of the RC member, reduce the porosity of honeycomb members.
5)Painting and Coating Work:
Painting Work: Painting of walls is the most important part in any type of construction. Painting provides protection as well as a decoration of interior and exterior walls.
Elastomeric Coating- Elastomeric coating is a single component acrylic co-polymer. The coating on application, form a film to protect the surface against the atmospheric agents such as carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, chloride ions, etc The film can withstand up to 200% elongation thereby bridging cracks in the structure due to temperature variation etc. They are available in a variety of colors and are highly durable.
Texo-Elastomeric Coating-This is a waterproof texture coating, applied on external façade, followed by application of Elastomeric waterproofing coating. This coating is highly used for structures where patch plaster is done, and to give a completely new aesthetic look, texture is applied, and coating of desired shade and color. The advantage of covering the irregular and dissimilar textured plaster.
Coating Work: Different types of structures (wood, terracotta, stones, cement,etc) are coated with different types of coatings to retard deterioration from the sunlight, rain, environmental and pollution based corrosion. These coatings improve the appearance and also increases the shelf life of the structure from exterior harmful effects.
Polyurethane Coating –This is two component air drying aliphatic polyurethane based coating having highly volatile solvent used generally for a surface where high abrasion resistance is required. It has a glossy finish and is designed to be used as finishing coat in epoxy polyurethane system. It has high UV value, high workability, resistance to almost all types of chemicals, resistance to water and saline atmosphere and is, highly durable. Available in various colors and low maintenance cost.
Epoxy Coating – Epoxies are highly adhesive and have high chemical properties in addition to resistance to heat, moisture alkalis, salt, solvents and mild acids. This makes epoxy be a protective coating to resist crude oil, refined petroleum products, etc. These coatings are widely used in heavy power plants, refineries, petrochemical units , gas plants, fertilizer and chemical plants, etc.
Anti-Carbonation Coating – Single component, high-performance acrylic resin based coating is used for long term protection of the exposed concrete and masonry structures against carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, chloride ions, etc.The coating is essential for bridges and flyovers, overhead tanks, industrial building and power plants, etc.
Heat Reflective Coating – As a contribution to fight against the global warming and to project the era of global building, we explore the possibilities of energy saving and using minimum natural resources. This heat reflective paints; reflects up to 60% of the heat load thereby reducing surface temperature. The painted surface dries to tightly packed layers of hard microspheres to form thermally efficient barriers.
Electrical Repair and Maintenance:
Electricity is an important necessity of our lifestyle, without which we cannot enjoy the comfort / luxury of scientific technology or innovations. Electricity has its negative side also. All electrical circuits, appliances, gadgets, machines, panels, wiring etc should work in its best conditions otherwise, any kind of defect or carelessness towards it, would cause a fatal electric shock, burn or accident. Also any natural calamity (flood,thunderbolt,etc) or with time any electrical part or equipment would cause an electrical accident. To avoid such mishaps periodic maintenance and repairs of all electrical things are required. For any minor electrical repairs,a skilled / licensed electrician can do the job, but for major work like replacement, renovation / up-gradation of any construction, an Electrical Engineer (or with an Interior Designer) will be required.
Water is an important part of life and its use in our day to day life is innumerable. Whether house or an industry or any office, water is used everywhere. As water is precious, efficient use and as well as waste water disposal is very important, for which we should have proper plumbing system in any construction.
Plumbing system in any construction requires proper and regular maintenance and upkeep. It also improves the efficiency of faucets and pipes resulting in a decrease of water wastage.
Major repairs require more capital expenditure and time, but the benefits of it are worth from future point of view, as one has said- a stitch in time saves nine.
The availability of latest technology helps in easy, cheap and reliable techniques and materials to be used in repairs, reconstruction or renovation.
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